History of Vaccines

H I S T O R Y — P A R T – O N E

[This section is from the early versions of Vaccination Is Not Immunization. As subsequent editions were re-written every year updated with current events, in order to keep the book at a readable length, the history section is now included here, online.]

    – Tim O’Shea



Smallpox was an infectious viral disease which was evident for centuries in places with poor sanitation, poverty, and malnutrition. Hundreds of thousands died, and there was no cure. The infectious agent was called Orthopox variola. [128] By the end of the 18th century the disease was following the natural course: burning itself out on the human population, confining itself to those with the lowest immune capabilities, and mutating. Herd immunity.

Smallpox was commonly regarded as divine punishment for unnamed errors. It never occurred to people that overcrowding, poor hygiene, contaminated food and water, or poor nutrition had anything to do with it. A superstition emerged that milkmaids who contracted a mild disease known as cowpox were thereby immune to smallpox.


as you may remember, was the English “physician” in the late 1700s who made use of that old superstition. As an experiment, Jenner came up with the idea of drawing serum from a cowpox pustule on the skin of an infected milkmaid – 9 year old Sarah Nelmes. [255, Miller] He was then reckless enough to actually inject the infected pus into a perfectly healthy subject, on the theory that contact with this “milder” disease would allow the subject to develop immunity to the more deadly smallpox.

Jenner’s wild theory was that this cow-pox is smallpox of the cow. Therefore, if you give a person cowpox, it is the same as smallpox, only in a very mild form. And it would not be infectious.

Going even farther out on a limb, Jenner himself absolutely declared that it is not that cowpox is preventive of smallpox but that it is smallpox itself! (Enquiry, 1798 [131])

After inoculating his very first patient – 8 year old James Phipps – Jenner absurdly maintained that his injections were conferring lifetime immunity:

“…what renders the cowpox virus so extremely singular is that the person who has been thus affected is forever after secure from the infection of the smallpox.”
– Jenner, 1797, cited in H.B. Anderson [172]


While Jenner is universally venerated today as mankind’s deliverer from the scourge of smallpox in probably 99% of sources because of his “discovery” of inoculation, what most edited modern drafts of the story omit is the

– utter lack of science underlying Jenner’s original claim of immunity from vaccines

– lack of science in producing smallpox vaccine

– number of deaths and disfiguring cases from his injections


Many of Jenner’s own contemporaries were shocked at how easily the scientific community was taken in by this auteur. Perusing the work of Walter Hadwen MD, celebrated English surgeon, author, and medical scholar of 100 years ago, we find a version of the Jenner story that is not quite so set in bronze as what we have always been told. Hadwen points out a few cracks in Jenner’s pedestal: [160]

    – Jenner was no physician. He never completed any program of medical study, or received a diploma from any medical school. If you go to the Jenner Museum in Gloucestershire, England today and ask for Jenner’s diploma, you will be told “we don’t have it.”

    – Jenner bought his medical degree for £15 from St Andrew’s College in Scotland, which he never attended. (Hume, p 174 [170], also Hadwen [160, 161])

    – Jenner “tested” his theory on one patient, and immediately claimed that he had “immunized” the patient against smallpox for life. Jenner then claimed that it would work universally. That’s it! No controlled clinical trials, no years of research, nothing.

Modern whitewashed versions of the story never mention that James Phipps died at age 20, having been inoculated with vaccine each year! Or that Jenner’s own son died at 21, also revaccinated over and over. (Baron, vol 2 [193])

With no proof whatsoever, Jenner tricked the entire medical profession, then and now, into pretending that cowpox was smallpox in cows – a total scientific inaccuracy. And then he sold the idea that his vaccine was the cure. [161, 232]


A few years after his “breakthrough,” Jenner’s repeated petitions to the House of Commons struck gold, or actually sterling. It finally dawned on the English government how millions of pounds could change hands by passing a law making Jenner’s smallpox vaccine compulsory. Jenner was promptly awarded the enormous sum of £30,000 by British Parliament and suddenly this uncredentialed poseur was a revered scientist. [162]

Soon Parliament began passing laws to make the untested vaccine compulsory throughout the British empire. The rest of Europe soon followed suit.

Once the economic implications of compulsory vaccinations were realized, dissenting voices went unpublished. Then as now, the media were largely controlled by vaccine manufacturers and the government, who stood to make huge money from the sale of these absurd vaccines. Hadwen put it like this:

“… so strong is the effect of authority, custom, and endowment, and so prone are people to save themselves the trouble of personal investigation by the simple process of accepting the decisions of “the majority” …

“When once an error is accepted by a profession corporately and endowed by Government, to uproot it becomes a herculean task.” [232]

Sound familiar? Despite the lack of scientific validation and the tens of thousands of documented vaccine deaths, compulsory smallpox vaccination lasted for 120 years! Then in 2002 America geared up to do it all again.


Let’s back up a moment and look at the original science. In the first place, these two diseases – cowpox and smallpox – are two completely distinct conditions, as Hadwen explains:

    “What is cow-pox? It is a disease which occurs on the teats of cows; it only occurs when they are in milk; only in one part of
    the body, and naturally only in the female animal; it results in an ugly chancre; and is not infectious.

    Small-pox, on the other hand, is not limited to the female sex as is cow-pox, nor to one portion of the body; it presents different physical signs, and, furthermore, is tremendously infectious, and the course and symptoms of the two diseases are totally different.

    Therefore there is no analogy between the two.” [161]

Legitimate scientists of Jenner’s day, like Bechamp, Hadwen, Wallace, and others thought it appalling that these distinctions between cowpox and smallpox were never discussed. If the axioms of immunology were true, how could one disease bug immunize against a completely separate disease?

Doing a taxonomic check in a standard index of viruses from a National Institutes of Health database [233] readily points out that cowpox is linked with a virus called Orthopox vaccinia and smallpox with a virus called Orthopox variola. These two viruses have different sizes, genetic sequences, and characteristics.

They’re different species. To pretend that cows get a version of smallpox called cowpox is bizarre enough – but then to say that people who get the same disease are thereby immune to smallpox is utterly fictional.

This chart may be helpful: ( Microsoft Encarta [143])

    Cowpox ……………. Smallpox

    In cows ….. ….. ….. ….. In humans
    Not infectious to cows ….. ….. Infectious to humans
    Orthopox vaccinia ….. Orthopox variola

Here’s how modern science glosses over the apparent contradiction, perpetuating the fable: From The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: [144] cowpox:

    “… infectious disease of cows caused by a virus related to the virus of smallpox. Also called variola, it is characterized by pustular lesions on the teats and udder. Cowpox is transmitted by contact, inducing a mild infection of the hands in persons who milk infected cows. The fact that such persons had immunity to smallpox led Edward Jenner to attempt vaccination with this virus, instead of using the dangerous method of vaccinating with material from the sores of smallpox. Jenner’s method was successful and is the basis of the modern vaccination against smallpox.”

Re-read this ridiculous paragraph. The majority of historical references have loudly proclaimed the sound science behind smallpox vaccine, up to the present day.


From a current MSN Encarta document:

“Cowpox, contagious viral disease of cows, characterized by pustular eruptions. Cowpox can be transmitted to humans by direct contact. Persons infected with cowpox become immune to smallpox, a similar but more serious disease. This immunity was discovered by Edward Jenner, who used cowpox virus to inoculate patients against smallpox.” – “Cowpox,” [143]


Why have all smallpox vaccines since the time of Jenner contained the wrong virus? Entrenched medical error. The 2002 smallpox vaccines – Dryvax and Acambis’ ACAM1000 – still contained Orthopox vaccinia, not Orthopox variola. (NEJM, [124], [133], King [104]) Smallpox is the only vaccine for which this ‘close cousin’ ruse has ever been tried. But almost only counts in horseshoes and hand grenades. Not in immunology.

As we saw in The Doors of Perception [261], the molders of the public mind are banking that most people will never look below the surface to discover the unscientific and illogical basis for issues which have huge economic significance. Everybody knows that in America people just don’t read any more.


From an original monograph by Dr Walter Hadwen, here is an account of how smallpox vaccine was first made: [165]

    1. A 3 month old calf was tied down on its side.
    2. 30 – 50 one-inch incisions were made in its stomach
    3. Smallpox pus rubbed into each incision
    4. Calf is returned to its pen, restrained so as to be unable to lick the sores
    5. Wait one week.
    6. Pustules form
    7. Calf strapped down again
    8. Encrusted pus is scraped off each sore and the remaining blood, lymph, and pus is then drained out.
    9. It is placed in a crucible and heated, adding glycerine as a binder
    10. Mixed and strained to remove hair and dead flesh.
    11. Poured into tubes as sold as pure calf lymph – or smallpox vaccine.

Very scientific. This calf lymph formula was used for decades, even up to the 1980s. [268] Post-9/11 smallpox vaccines employed far more sophisticated science, culturing on the cells of aborted human fetus. [140] And still with vaccinia – cowpox.


On the way to becoming the dangerous and useless product it is today, smallpox vaccine has been true to its origins. Here are a few of the other infected sources from which Jenner and others drew the material which they also claimed was smallpox vaccine, up until 1898:

    – infected horse hooves
    – pustules on cows who had been infected with human
    – pustules on humans who had been deliberately
    infected with horse grease and cowpox
    – pustules on humans infected with smallpox
    – (Baxby [192], An Enquiry [131], [255])

Horse grease was the name of a hoof infection disease. Jenner felt

justified in injecting pus from infected horse hooves into healthy children because he dreamed up the notion that cowpox was harbored in the infected hooves. [131] Not kidding.

Guess where Jenner got smallpox pus for his vaccine. Give up? Human corpses, dead from smallpox! [236]

For over 150 years, there was virtually no consistency in the preparation of smallpox vaccine. [256]

Astoundingly, it turns out that cowpox itself is not a natural disease of cows. Cowpox is a disease of the udder which came about by farmers milking the cows with filthy hands. Often after having just cleaned infections in other animals, or after any other farm chore for that matter. Syphilis and tuberculosis were commonly present in the pustular cowpox lesions from which the precious “vaccine” was extracted. ([164], SAV [256], [255])

Another popular Jennerian method was the arm-to-arm technique. (Rains [163]) Until it became illegal in 1898, pustular material was simply drawn from a corpse’s arm and injected into the patient. The reason for the 1898 law was to curb the rampant transmission of syphilis and tuberculosis between humans. (Baxby [192])

In reading these old histories, one gradually realizes that many of the “vaccines” didn’t go through any manufacturing steps or preparation whatsoever. Before 1856, a large percentage of the early smallpox vaccines were nothing more than arbitrary injections of human and animal pus directly into a healthy child’s bloodstream! (SAV [256], whale.to [252]


For every new batch of the cultured smallpox vaccines, material from the last batch was used to infect the new calves. The seed lot method. But as the vaccine got “weaker” – less skin inflammation in humans – the material was often passed through several other species (rabbits, donkeys, monkeys, sheep) before inoculating the new calves. This supposedly made the vaccine “stronger” again because human skin would become more inflamed after the inoculation. The beginning of the immune-response-equals- immunity myth. (WHO – Henderson [194]) No one ever thought to consider how the disease agent itself was being artificially mutated in the process, let alone contaminated with animal proteins.


Here we see the level of the science underlying smallpox vaccine for the past two centuries. The random cross-mixing of blood between man and animals violated common traditions and taboos of most cultures from time immemorial. Most religions specifically forbade it. Cowpox was not a natural disease in cows; syphilis was not a natural disease in man. Smallpox was not a natural disease in cows, nor in any other animals: it had to be injected into them. How many other diseases have their roots in this quixotic inter-species experimentation? Bad ju-ju to ignore Mother Nature.

By 1875, smallpox vaccine had become so crossed and intermixed from so many different sources, passed through so many different species, that the actual composition was truly unknown. There was no consistency worldwide – in any location smallpox vaccine

was whatever the local authorities said it was. Any given smallpox vaccine might have its origins in goat pox, swine pox, cowpox, monkeypox, horse grease, human smallpox or any combination thereof. [256]


By 1853, Parliament began passing laws to make the untested vaccine compulsory throughout the British empire. Other countries of Europe followed suit.

Dr Hadwen provides a rare window into the medical research of a century ago, one that has not received the usual whitewash. He tells the amazing story about Prussia, the most vaccinated country in Europe during the 1800s, and the country which kept the best records. Hadwen had access to these medical records before the media had the sense to suppress them. Here’s what they showed: ([232, 236])

It happened that Prussia passed a mandatory vaccination law in 1834 for smallpox. The law provided that every infant be vaccinated, and then revaccinated when starting school. After graduation he had to be vaccinated again, and then once more upon entering the Army. And all healthy males had to go into the Army. Anyone who refused the vaccination was to be “held down and vaccinated by force; and so thoroughly was it done that he was then vaccinated in ten places on each arm.” [232]

OK, so we get the idea that almost 100% of Prussians got Jenner’s smallpox vaccine. So what happened in Prussia 35 years after this vaccination law? A smallpox epidemic of 1 million cases which killed “124,978 of her vaccinated and re-vaccinated citizens after thirty-five years of compulsory vaccination!”


How about England?

A compulsory “immunization” program was set up in England in 1853 using Jenner’s methods. (McBean p.13)[179] Before that time, the highest number of deaths in a 2 year period in England from smallpox was about 2000.

Results of this “immunization”:
………. year ………. deaths

    1857-9 ….. 14,244
    1863-5 ….. 20,059

In response, in 1867 Parliament enacted a stricter vaccination law, and 97% of the people were inoculated. New result:

year ………. deaths

1868 ………. 44,840 ………………..- Null, Part III, p 23 [188]

Great vaccine.

Alfred Russell Wallace offers abundant proof how vaccine statistics were manipulated in England during the 1800s – the who and the why of it. After thoroughly charting actual deaths throughout the UK and the Continent from smallpox and from the vaccine, Wallace concludes that smallpox vaccine

    “…has actually increased susceptibility to the disease. … the conclusion is in every case the same: that vaccination is a gigantic delusion; that it has never saved a single life; but that it has been the cause of so much disease, so many deaths, such a vast amount of utterly needless and altogether undeserved suffering, that it will be classed by the coming generation among the greatest errors of an ignorant and prejudiced age, the foulest blot on … our century.”

– Alfred R. Wallace, Chapter VI 1898 [162]


After WWI, there was a lot of surplus smallpox vaccine that didn’t get used. So we looked to another market we could control. When the U.S. mandated a mass smallpox vaccination program in the Philippines in 1917, some 25 million shots were given to those people. 163,000 Filipinos came down with the disease after the vaccination, and 75,339 of them died from it, quadrupling the death rate prior to the inoculation program. That’s far more than the total number of Americans who died in the entire Vietnam war! American “immunization” of its Philippine territory caused several horrific epidemics there that didn’t quite make the six o’clock news. (Anderson, p 69 W.H.Hay, also James, p 410 [172, 189, 167])


What most people don’t know is that just after the US began vaccinating for smallpox (1902) England stopped. By 1907 England had no more compulsory smallpox vaccination. Holland, same thing in 1928. Australia – 1925. ([172] , p 10)

How long did it take the US to figure it out? We finally stopped in 1971, the last holdout in the world.

The low ebb of the infectious diseases arrived in the 1970s. From 1950 to 1970, zero cases of smallpox were reported in the U.S. After 1970, there were a few cases of smallpox, but they only
occurred among the ranks of the vaccinated! (Scheibner) [207]

What’s important to notice is that smallpox vaccination in the U.S. persisted another 30 years after the disease was at an incidence of practically zero. Again, the only source of death from smallpox in the U.S. for 30 years was from the vaccine itself. (Mendelsohn, p 232; World Book, 1994) [209, 214]

Today smallpox occurs nowhere in nature.


To sum up, what Jenner really did was to take an old superstition of Gloucester dairymaids and pander it into an enormous fortune for himself and the English government by the most unfounded “scientific” posturing. [145]


From 9/11 until early 2003, popular media employed a dazzling menage of pseudoscience and well-edited history to concoct a new myth out of thin air: terrorists were about to release smallpox as a bioweapon that could decimate our population. Government leaders with degrees in law, not science, decided to prepare enough vaccine to inoculate every American. And to empower themselves to legislate the vaccine’s administration, sanctioned by severe penalties for refusal. (Altman 99])

Price tag for the new doses: over $3 billion. But what is money when compared with the health and security of the American people?

Answer: it’s still money.

Post-9/11 politics created marketing niches the likes of which the world had never seen.

For more detail on the post 9/11 smallpox vaccine hoax, the reader is referred to the online chapter Smallpox: Bringing a Dead Disease Back To Life.

The illusion of a smallpox threat was created – a $3 billion dream. [93] Throughout 2002, the unlettered public were unrelentingly terrorized with media scenarios of crazed Muslims unleashing weaponized smallpox into metropolitan areas, supposedly resulting in epidemics of smallpox spreading like wildfire through an unvaccinated population, etc. Remember?

In an eerie replay of the social politics of 200 years ago, scientific fact was brushed aside, as though these events never took place:

    – smallpox disappeared worldwide in 1977
    – the only deaths from smallpox since 1970 have been from the
    – smallpox vaccine killed thousands in England, France,
    Germany, Italy, and the Philippines
    – the vaccine is for a completely different disease – a disease of
    cows (vaccinia)
    – the vaccine does not confer immunity to smallpox
    – historically smallpox vaccine has killed more people than any
    vaccine ever invented
    – the reason that our country and every other country in the
    world stopped vaccinating was that the vaccine not only
    did not work, but was causing the disease and other
    pathological and fatal side effects

Despite all this, the FDA, CDC, HHS, Office of Homeland Security, plus many of the new offices which suddenly emerged at the trough, decided that a few companies should produce enough vaccine to give all 280 million Americans ‘protection.’ [257] The companies included Aventis in France, Acambis in England, and Wyeth in the US.


Mass smallpox vaccine never could have worked. Amid the deafening roar of its marketing during 2002, we forgot that

    – the entire smallpox vaccine program was predicated upon a premise that is scientifically unproven: namely that one dose of the new vaccine could confer lasting immunity… to anything.

    – many would die or suffer permanent injury from this ‘protective’ measure


Acambis is in England. Aventis is in France. Yet England and France never geared up for mass smallpox vaccination of their own populations. Nor did any other country. Why not? Because the only market in the world was here in the US, where the only threat was a perceived threat, created by US media. How altruistic of the Brits and the Frogs to sacrifice their own national safety and put their old buds the Americans first.

This virgin looks somewhat pregnant, n’est-ce pas?

[For more on the history of vaccines, go to the History section in the current edition of Vaccination Is Not Immunization.]



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